Wednesday, October 28, 2015


A trademark is a name, slogan or logo which identifies someone's goods or services and indicates source or quality. The purpose of a trademark is to identify and distinguish one person's products or services from those of another. A trademark functions as a symbol of quality and goodwill. Trademark rights accrue to the owner of a mark based on the "use" of a mark and these rights vest in the first user of a mark when the mark is used in connection with the trademark owner's goods or services. In other words, you own rights in your trademark from the moment you start using it to identify your products or services  These rights are applicable in the music business to the names used by rock groups, DJs, and rappers as well as by management, production and record companies.

Just how protectable your trademark is varies depending on whether it is deemed to be: 1) arbitrary and fanciful (the most protectable category); 2) suggestive; 3) descriptive (which is only protectable if "secondary meaning" can be established); or 4) generic (which is given little or no protection). In simple terms, the more unique your name is the more easily protection is available for it as a trademark. That is one reason that some of the strongest trademarks are words that were invented just for the purpose so that they fall into the first "arbitrary and fanciful" category. Such invented names include "Nike", "Rolex", "Exxon", and "Microsoft". When it comes to rock bands, names such as "Smashing Pumpkins", "Foo Fighters" and "Brooklyn Funk Essentials" would obviously fall into this distinctive arbitrary and fanciful category.

The first person to use a trademark has superior rights over a subsequent user of a similar trademark. The criterion for determining infringement of a trademark is the "likelihood of confusion" test. Under the Lanham Act (which is U.S. Federal Law governing trademarks), use of a trademark likely to cause confusion, mistake or deception by the public is prohibited. If your name or mark is deemed to be confusingly similar to a previously existing trademark, the prior user will have grounds for a trademark infringement action against you.

Therefore, before investing too much time, effort and money in establishing your prospective trademark it is a good idea to do a trademark search to make sure nobody else has been using the same or a confusingly similar name before you. Keep in mind that a mere search of current Federal trademark registrations may not be sufficient. In the event that a full nationwide search from one of the companies that specializes in doing such searches is beyond your budget, then at least do an online search through Google and other online search engines.  This is important because trademark rights are based on "first use."  Therefore, even if someone does not file for or procure a Federal trademark registration, certain rights vest in that person under state law from the moment they start using the name.  If they were using a particular name similar to yours prior to when you first started using your name then, under state law, even if you file a Federal trademark registration before that prior user files, he or she could still prevent you from using your name (and prevent or limit the release of your records under your name). The usual solution to such a problem is to buy out that person's rights, but this can be costly. However, the last thing you want to do is find out of the eve of your first big record release that someone else was using the name you have printed on all of the CD covers before you were using it, and you now have to scrap all of your records.

Once you are sure that the name you want to use is clear, the best way to protect your rights is to file an application for Federal trademark registration. Although certain ownership rights accrue to you in your trademark from the time you first start using it as a source identifier for yourself or your band, Federal registration will give you, among other things, a legal presumption of first use and ownership of the name nationwide. It will allow you to commence legal action in Federal court and may entitle you to injunctive relief (which is an order by the court that the infringer cease using the name until the case is resolved), treble damages and legal fees.

Therefore, having determined that no other person or entity is using the name that you want to use as our trademark, the next step is to file an application for trademark registration in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The filing starts a process that can span several months. Although the time between filing the application and actually receiving your trademark registration certificate could be six months to a year, the effectiveness of the registration is retroactive to the date of first use. Therefore, once you start using a name is it best to continue. In fact, in order to maintain your trademark rights you must continue to use the name and you must police your trademark and beware of others who may use a confusingly similar name to yours.

In summary, the best way for a new artist or group to proceed is to choose as unique a name as you can think of, do a comprehensive search to be sure that it is uniquely your own, and then file an application for Federal trademark registration. Most importantly, remember that trademark rights are based on use so once you choose a name - use it or loose it!

Wallace Collins is an entertainment and intellectual property lawyer based in New York. He was a recording artist for Epic Records before receiving his law degree from Fordham Law School. 

Monday, October 19, 2015

Thursday, October 1, 2015


Under U.S. Copyright law, Congress has seen fit to legislate a minimum statutory mechanical royalty rate for songwriters and their publishers.  Based on an upward-sliding scale tied to a cost-of-living index, the mechanical royalty rate is set by the Copyright Royalty Tribunal on a per song per record basis. The current rate in effective is $.091 per song.  However, most record companies use their substantial leverage over fledgling recording artists to cause them to enter into record contracts which purport to reduce this minimum rate pursuant to the "controlled composition" clause - and this provision might also be made to apply to producers and songwriters who do work for those artists.

The controlled composition clause is one of the most insidious of a plethora of royalty-reducing provisions in any record contract. It reduces the mechanical rate for a songwriter/recording artist and its publisher on songs written or otherwise "controlled" by the artist.  Most such clauses not only reduce the payment per song, but may also put a limit on the total number of songs on which such payment will be made and may fix the point in time at which such calculation will be made (thereby circumventing the cost of living index increase). This is an issue not only for the songwriter/recording artist but for the producer/songwriter and for non-contractual songwriters who may chose to collaborate with an artist who is signed to a recording agreement with a controlled composition clause.

A full analysis of a controlled composition clause is beyond the scope of this article.  However, for a simplified example of how it works, lets assume a typical clause where the songwriter/artist will receive 3/4 of the minimum statutory mechanical rate (assuming the minimum rate is 6 cents per song at the time) on a maximum of 10 songs per LP. The mechanical royalty on the artist's entire LP usually has a "cap" of 68.25 cents (3/4 of $.091x 10 songs) so that, even if the songwriter/artist writes 12 songs for its own album, the artist's publishing is not worth $1.09 per album ($.091 x 12 songs) but only 68.25 cents.

To further illustrate, assume the 12 song album has 6 songs written by the artist and 6 songs from outside publishers. Unless otherwise agreed, the outside publishers are not subject to the artist's 3/4 rate so the 6 outside songs get the full rate and are entitled to a total of 51 cents. Since the mechanical royalty on the entire LP has a "cap" of 68.25 cents, the songwriter/recording artist is limited to applying the remaining 13 cents to the songwriter/artist's 6 songs, so that the artist's publishing is worth a little more than 2 cents per song. And keep in mind, if the artist's producer agreement has language tying the record producer to the artist's controlled rate or an outside songwriter's mechanical license has similar language, then both the producer and the outside writer would also be subject to the reduced rate and the "cap."

To take it one step further, imagine a case where 8 of the 12 songs on the LP were from outside publishers. The outside publishers would be entitled to at least 72 cents in mechanical royalties ($.091 x 8 songs).  Since the artist's contractual cap is 68.25 cents, then for each LP sold the songwriter/record artist would actually lose mechanical royalties and owe its record company a few cents for each record that sells which would be deducted out of the songwriter/artist's recording royalties. The net effect is that the songwriter/artist's own 4 songs receive no mechanical royalties at all.

A controlled composition clause may also contain language which further reduces the mechanical rate on mid-priced and budget sales, etc., providing for a 3/4 rate on the 3/4 rate.  In addition, record contracts often contain several subparagraphs that eliminate royalty payments for free goods and records sold below wholesale price, etc.  Several of these categories would ordinarily be subject to mechanical royalties absent the controlled composition clause.  Moreover, although this provision reduces mechanical royalties on the artist's publishing, it does not reduce payments to outside publishers since they are not subject to the clause.

The most treacherous dilemma for the songwriter/artist is that, even if the record company does not acquire the artist's publishing in its contract, the value of the artist's publishing may so greatly be reduced by the controlled composition clause that the artist may find it difficult to get a publishing deal elsewhere.  This is especially true if the mechanical royalties are cross-collateralized with the artist royalties since, until the artist is recouped, no mechanical royalties will be payable to the songwriter/recording artist or its publisher.

The foregoing scenarios raise numerous legal issues including antitrust, interference with prospective financial advantage and restraint of trade.  Another issue raised is whether, under partnership law (where one partner can bind the partnership), a co-writer who is not actually a signatory to the record contract is subject to the 3/4 rate by virtue of being a "partner" in the song's creation.

These days almost every record contract contains a controlled composition clause.  Although certain aspects of a controlled composition clause can be made less onerous by some persistent negotiation (such as escalations of the rate based on sales thresholds), record companies are generally inflexible in their insistence *on this provision and their position can only be tempered by their desire to sign a particular artist or by an artist's importance and stature. This provision should be reviewed very carefully by an artist and his lawyer; any artist's lawyer who failed to discuss this clause and explain its ramifications to the client (under the assumption that it is "standard" in every record contract) would certainly be inadequately representing the client, and may suffer the consequences when the actual effect of the provision is eventually revealed to the artist.

In fairness to record companies, with the exorbitant cost and high risk of the record business, record companies need to cut costs where they can to try to make a profit on the few artists who do succeed.  However, the question is one of whether devaluing the artist's publishing is a fair way of doing it.  Record companies contend that, since they are financing the production and marketing of the artist's recordings, the artist should give them a break on the publishing royalties they would otherwise have to pay.

By way of analogy, imagine a particular record company, in order to cut costs, decided that, despite the Federally mandated minimum wage, any employee who wanted to work for that label would have to accept three-quarters of the minimum wage.  It is unlikely such a preposterous policy would hold up in court.  When it was tried by calling in an "internship program" the Courts did now permit it. Whether the contractual reduction by a record company of a Congressionally legislated minimum royalty rate would hold up in a court of law has yet to be tested.

Wallace Collins is an entertainment and intellectual property lawyer with more than 30 years of experience based in New York. He was a recording artist for Epic Records before receiving his law degree from Fordham Law School. Tel: (212) 661-3656;